High-resolution Infrared Observations

High spectral resolution infrared observations of circumstellar envelopes – CSEs – in AGB stars are essential to study important molecular species with no permanent dipole moment (e.g. H2, O2, CO2, SiH4, C2H4). This lack makes them undetectable in the millimeter range due to the absence of rotational transitions. Hence, the best possible observation of these molecules is through its vibration–rotation lines in the mid infrared range.

These observations are vital to study the amount of ejected matter in the pulsation phase and determine the chemical interactions between the ejected molecules in the CSEs. These studies help improve the underlying assumptions of currently available chemical models.

Therefore, we observed the carbon-rich star IRC+10216 with the Texas Echelon-cross-Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) on the 3 m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We carried out observations of the oxygen rich star R Leo with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) with the high spectral resolution Echelon-cross-Echelle Spectrograph (EXES). Finally, we used both SOFIA/EXES and IRTF/TEXES to observe the carbon rich semi-regular star Y CVn.

Summary of oustanding results with the NANOCOSMOS high-resolution infrared observations of CSEs in AGB stars

Multi-frequency high spectral resolution observations of HCN toward the circumstellar envelope of Y CVn (J. P. Fonfría et al., A&A, submitted)

  • Analysis and Identification of 130 lines of HCN and H13CN with either P-Cygni profiles or pure absorption profiles
  • Dust grains could be mostly made of silicon carbide SiC in the inner layers of the CSE (~ 3.5 stellar radii) and of amorphous carbon in the outer envelope (up to 200 stellar radii)
  • The observed mid-IR lines are broader than expected due to possible high velocity matter ejections or photospheric movements related to stellar pulsation or convection.
  • HCN rotational and vibrational temperatures are out of local thermodynamics equilibrium so collisions do not play any role in the gas thermalization


Detection of infrared fluorescence of carbon dioxide in R Leonis with SOFIA/EXES (J. P. Fonfría et al., A&A, 11/2020)

  • CO2 (≃240 emission lines in the range 12.8−14.3 μm) New detection in R Leo
  • The observed CO2 lines can be grouped into three different populations, (warm, hot, and very hot), with approximate temperatures of 550, 1150, and 1600 K
  • The CO2 emitting regions at 1600, 1150, and 550 K are located at 2.2, 3.5, and 10 stellar radii from the center of R Leo
  • We need a systematic study of the CO2 emission in O-rich stars to understand how this molecule forms and the possible dependence of the column density on the mass-loss rate


Carbon Chemistry in IRC+10216: Infrared Detection of Diacetylene (J. P. Fonfría et al., ApJ, 01/2018)

  • C4H2 (24 absorption features in the range 8.0 to 8.1 μm) First detection in IRC+10216
  • The major emission of C4H2 arises in the dust formation zone at radii lower than 20 stellar radii (50 Astronomical Units) from the center of IRC+10216
  • Our photochemical models underestimate the observed C4H2 abundance. This finding could imply that the molecules in the envelope are photodissociated in shells closer to the star than is commonly assumed


The Abundance of C2H4 in the Circumstellar Envelope of IRC+10216 (J. P. Fonfría et al., ApJ, 01/2017)

  • C2H4 (80 ro-vibrational features in absorption) Part of the emission arises in the inner dust formation zone contrary to previous findings
  • Part of the emission of acetylene arises in the dust formation zone at radii between 14 and 28 stellar radii from the center of IRC+10216, with no evidence of C2H4 closer to the star. Previous findings supposed all C2H4 arises in the far outer envelopes.
  • Our photochemical models underestimate the observed C2H4 terminal abundance by a factor of 4. We estimate that a fraction of the acetylene gas-phase could condense onto the dust grains around 20 stellar radii. this fact could affect the chemistry evolution of the envelope

New theoretical grounds in Astrochemistry

For the first time, NANOCOSMOS has attempted to reproduce the complex molecular chemistry and stardust formation in circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and interstellar environments under accurate and realistic laboratory conditions. These conditions differ from previous studies and techniques to produce stardust analogs, mostly based on laser ablation and pyrolysis, flames, and other far related conditions from those in the CSEs of AGB stars.

Hence, we have used our innovative setups at CSIC and CNRS, e.g. Stardust, AROMA, PIRENEA 2 and cold plasma reactors, to study the processes that lead to carbon dust formation including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fullerenes. We have studied the chemistry of atomic silicon and the formation of silicate dust grains. We have also investigated the aromatic content of two different meteorites, Murchison and Almahata Sitta.

In summary, our synergetic results provide significant and surprising breakthroughs in our current understanding of the chemical processes at play in CSEs and meteoritic samples. These new and open theoretical grounds have also important implications in current chemical models. These NANOCOSMOS breakthroughs are the following:

  • Aliphatic nature of carbonaceous cosmic dust analogs. Our realistic laboratory conditions do not lead to the efficient formation of aromatic molecules (PAHs and fullerenes) in the gas phase, contrary to all previous studies (Stardust, AROMA).
  • Efficient mechanism for the formation of silane and disilane in the gas phase from Si, H, and H2 in the innermost regions of the CSEs around AGB stars (Stardust).
  • Further evidence for the role of metal (iron) seeds to increase not only the formation of metal clusters but also catalyzed hydrocarbon growth in the CSEs of AGB stars (Cold plasma reactors, AROMA, PIRENEA 2 and ESPOIRS).

  • First firm detection of fullerenes in meteorites (Almahata Sitta) and co-existence of carbon clusters along with PAHs in this meteorite (AROMA).

    Discovery of Molecular Species in Space

    NANOCOSMOS has performed a systematic work to identify “unknown” gas-phase species in circumstellar envelopes and interstellar molecular clouds. These species are the carriers of the so-called U-lines or unidentified features. Currently, the team has found more than 1,000 U-lines formed in the photosphere surroundings of the AGB carbon star IRC+10216. We are progressing in the identification of these carriers to complete a spectral catalogue and merge this catalogue into the MADEX radiative transfer code.

    Definitely, NANOCOSMOS is characterizing different dust formation places in Space through the observations of molecular lines. So far, the team has already discovered 10 new molecular species in the inner regions of the envelope of IRC+10216 and 29 more in the interstellar medium until the end of March 2021. This amounts to approximately a 20% of known molecules in Space.

    The team has made a joint effort on the following objects. IRC+10216 is the archetypal AGB carbon rich star, given its proximity ~ 130 pc, and unpaired molecular richness with more than 80 molecular species prior to NANOCOSMOS. R Leo is one of the closest AGB oxygen rich stars, at a distance of ~ 80 pc. Multi-wavelength molecular observations of this star show no detection of CO2 despite predictions from chemical models. Y CVn is a carbon rich semi-regular star at ~ 310 pc from the Earth. Its circumnuclear envelope has not been explored in detail mostly due to the lack of sensitive observations. Finally, the Taurus Molecular Cloud -1 or TMC-1, is a cold dark molecular cloud. It presents an interesting carbon-rich chemistry that leads to the formation of long neutral carbon-chain radicals and their anions, as well as cyanopolyynes, and protonated species of abundant large carbon chains.

    This menu splits our stunning discoveries into the following entries:

    The team is currently submitting new exciting results from the NANOCOSMOS legacy molecular survey of evolved stars with the Yebes 40m radio telescope. Also, we are interpreting new challenging results from ALMA high resolution observations of IRC+10216 that will boost our previous observations of this source. The best for NANOCOSMOS is yet to come!

    IRC+10216: new molecules inventory

    3-atoms4-atoms5-atoms6-atoms7 or more
    Si2CPH3MgC3NSiH3CNSiH3CH3
    CaNCMgCCHC4H2
    NCCPMgC4H
    Table: See the internal menu pages for more ongoing information on these molecular species. Left: figure thanks to Dr. J. P. Fonfría.


    Interstellar Medium: new molecules inventory

    2-atoms3-atoms4-atoms5-atoms6-atoms7 or more
    NS+NCOHCCO HC3O+ CH2CCHHC4NC
    HCSCNCNHDCCNH2CCCSHCCCH2CN
    HSCHCCNH2CCSHC4NCH2CCHCN
    NCSHCCSC4SC5S CH2CHCCH
    C3N_HC3S+CH3CO+HC5NH+
    H2NCO+C5N_H2CCCHCCH
    CH3CH2CN
    Table: See the internal menu pages for more information on these molecular species. Left image: Taurus Molecular Cloudcredit ESO.

    OUTSTANDING RESULTS

    NANOCOSMOS has successfully achieved significative breakthroughs to address the fundamental problem of cosmic dust formation. We have designed and implemented innovative experimental set-ups and analytical tools well beyond the state-of-the-art. Next we describe the design, construction, implementation and commissioning of these innovations in the dedicated links:

    NANOCOSMOS is providing new exciting experimental results in different research fields and challenging theoretical grounds. This menu is devoted to the description and analysis of Outstanding Results and potential new challenges.

    Carbon grains around evolved stars

    The Nanocosmos team published in October 21, 2019, at Nature Astronomy (available free at Europe PubMed Central), the results of a set of laboratory experiments showing that gas-phase chemistry, under conditions similar to those of a red giant star environment, can produce very efficiently small amorphous carbon grains and carbon chains similar to those found in oil.

    Stardust, an ultra-high vacuum machine built in the ERC Nanocosmos project (a Synergy project funded by the European Research Council), was specifically conceived to simulate, with a high level of control, the complex conditions of stardust formation and processing in the environment of evolved stars. In addition, the AROMA setup was built to analyse the molecular content of the samples synthesized by Stardust.

    In the words of José Ángel Martín-Gago (Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Spain), responsible for the Stardust instrument, “Mimicking the conditions of the envelope of an evolved star, laboratory experiments allow scientists to follow, step by step, the formation process of dust grains, from atoms to simple molecules and their growth to more complex clusters of molecules.”

    For José Cernicharo (Institute of Fundamental Physics, IFF-CSIC, Spain), lead co-investigator of the project together with Martín-Gago and Christine Joblin (Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, IRAP-CNRS, France), “That process is important because those grains of dust, which emerge from the final stages of the evolution of medium-sized stars like our Sun will provide the fundamental pieces needed for the birth of the planets and the main ingredients for the onset of life once injected into the interstellar medium.”

    This is why it is essential to develop experiments combining laboratory astrophysics, surface science and astronomical observations to unveil the chemical routes that operate in the inner layers of the envelope of evolved stars.

    The results obtained show the formation of amorphous carbon nanograins and aliphatic carbon clusters with traces of aromatic species and no fullerenes. This shows that the latter species cannot form effectively by gas-phase condensation at these temperatures in the zone of the evolved star where the dust is formed, a region that extends up to a few stellar radii.

    Chemical complexity

    Carbon dust analogues were produced in Stardust and analysed with several characterization techniques including Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and mass spectrometry with the AROMA setup. To produce them only gas carbon atoms and molecular hydrogen were used in a ratio close to that in the atmospheres of AGB stars.

    The results showed two types of products: amorphous carbonaceous nanograins – the most abundant, considered to be the main component of carbonaceous star dust – and aliphatic carbon groups. But almost no aromatic molecules were found in the analysis.

    According to Joblin, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in massive star-forming regions and in carbon-rich protoplanetary and planetary nebulae. Large carbonaceous molecules like buckminsterfullerene C60 have also been detected in some of these environments. But it seems that they need different conditions to be formed”.

    One possible pathway could be through thermal processing of aliphatic material on the surface of dust, which could take place as a result of the significant rise in the temperature of nanograins that occurs in highly UV-irradiated environments. Those results give us new insights into the chemistry of carbonaceous stardust seed formation and foster new observations in order to constrain the physical and chemical conditions in the inner shells of the envelops of evolved stars.

    About the ERC

    The European Research Council, set up by the European Union in 2007, is the premier European funding organisation for excellent frontier research. Every year it selects and funds the very best, creative researchers of any nationality and age to run projects based in Europe. The ERC has three grant schemes for individual principal investigators – Starting Grants, Consolidator Grants, and Advanced Grants – and Synergy Grants for small groups of excellent researchers.

    To date, the ERC has funded more than 9,000 top researchers at various stages of their careers, and over 50,000 postdoctoral fellows, PhD students and other staff working in their research teams. The ERC strives to attract top researchers from anywhere in the world to come to Europe.

    The ERC is led by an independent governing body, the Scientific Council. The ERC current President is Professor Jean-Pierre Bourguignon. The ERC has an annual budget of €2 billion for the year 2019. The overall ERC budget from 2014 to 2020 is more than €13 billion, as part of the Horizon 2020 programme, for which European Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science Carlos Moedas is currently responsible.

    ECLA 2016 – webpage open

    Ecla2016-1125x510

    The second announcement of the European Conference on Laboratory Astrophysics – “Gas on the Rocks” – ECLA 2016 has been issued today.  This conference will be held at the CSIC headquarters (Madrid, Spain) in November 21 – 25, 2016. The webpage is open with all the relevant information.

    www.ecla2016.com

    More than 30 invited researchers will address new insights on the following science topics:

    • Comets, asteroids, meteorites and the primitive Solar System nebula: formation and evolution
    • Protoplanetary disks and planet formation
    • Planet, Moon, and exoplanet surfaces and atmospheres
    • The signatures of the evolving interstellar medium
    • Dense Clouds: the gas-ice interface and molecular complexity
    • Chemical fingerprints of star formation
    • The late stages of star evolution: dust formation
    • Supernovae and shocks: high-energy processing of matter

    Nick Cox at The Physics of Evolved Stars (POE2015) conference

    nanocosmos_general_poster_final

    The Nanocosmos project was presented at The Physics of Evolved Stars (POE2015) conference by Nanocosmos astronomer Dr. Nick Cox on behalf of the three PIs. This international meeting, held from 8-12 June in Nice, France, was organised to honour Dr. Olivier Chesneau (Observatoire de Nice) who passed away in 2014. Presentations at the meeting covered the broad range of scientific interests of Olivier: from AGB stars, Planetary Nebulae, R CrB stars, Novae, Symbiotic systems, and many more. Many presentations at this meeting centred on understanding the formation and presence of dust and molecules in circumstellar environments of both low- and high-mass evolved stellar systems, topics of particular interest to Nanocosmos researchers.

    High-Resolution Submillimeter Spectroscopy of the Interstellar Medium and Star Forming Regions — From Herschel to ALMA and Beyond (Zakopane, Poland, May 12 – 16, 2015)

    copyright © : Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ)
    copyright © : Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ)

    Two NANOCOSMOS members, Prof. José Cernicharo and Dr. Javier R. Goicoechea gave two invited talks at this workshop in Poland. José Cernicharo showed the NANOCOSMOS latests results from the ALMA observations of the archetypical AGB carbon-star IRC+10216. The NANOCOSMOS team has published 4 articles (see publications) on these results (including IRAM observations) and new exciting results are expected for the coming months. Javier R. Goicoechea talked about the velocity-resolved [CII] emission and [CII]/FIR mapping along Orion. The [CII] 158μm fine structure line is arising in gas irradiated by UV-photons from the Trapezium cluster and contributes significantly to the cooling of the cold neutral medium. These observations in combination with Far-Infrared photometric images of the dust emission and maps of the H41α hydrogen recombination and CO provide an unprecedented close view (0,16 light-years in resolution) of the Orion Cloud surrounding the Trapezium. Stay tuned¡

    NANOCOSMOS workshops/meetings

    2017

    NANOCOSMOS Interstellar Dust Meeting

    Date: 12 – 13 June 2017

    Place: Université Paul Sabatier (Toulouse, France)

    Key dates: 

    Abstract submission deadline: April 30th, 2017

    Registration deadline: May 14th, 2017

    Webpage: https://epolm3-nanocosm.sciencesconf.org/

    2016

    European Conference on Laboratory AstrophysicsGas on the Rocks (ECLA2016)

    Outcome of the conference: See “A summary of the ECLA2016” link

    November 21 – 25, 2016 (CSIC Headquarters, Madrid, Spain)

    Webpage: ECLA2016

    FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT

    Key dates:
    Second announcement:  February 1st, 2016 (opening of the conference web page).
    Deadline for abstract submission: June 15, 2016
    Deadline for early registration: July 15, 2016
    Deadline for information participants about selected contributing talks: June 30, 2016
    Final program: July 15, 2016
    Last announcement with final details: November 1st, 2016

    Motivation:

    Over the last decade, European research activities in the field of laboratory astrophysics have experienced an impressive increase in their potential to address astrophysical problems, in particular by providing essential information on the physical and chemical processes leading to chemical complexity in space resulting in star and planet formation. These activities have been motivated by the interpretation of astronomical observations obtained with single dish telescopes and short baseline interferometers. The wealth of data obtained with ALMA, space facilities (Herschel, Spitzer, Rosetta, the coming JWST, E-ELT), and other ground based observatories (VLTI, NOEMA, …), require new methodologies for the astrophysical modeling that will lead to new challenges for laboratory astrophysics.

    This conference aims to address the state of the art in laboratory astrophysics within the context of these new astrophysical data and to improve communication and collaboration between astrophysicists, physicists and (geo) chemists. Hence, the conference structure will consist of invited talks presenting topics in astrophysics and planetary science and related laboratory astrophysics activities. Contributing talks will be selected to complement the topics from the astrophysical, laboratory, and theoretical/modeling points of view.

    The astrophysical areas that will be addressed are:

    Comets, asteroids, meteorites and the primitive Solar System nebula: formation and evolution
    Protoplanetary disks and planet formation
    Planet, Moon, and exoplanet surfaces and atmospheres
    The signatures of the evolving interstellar medium
    Dense Clouds: the gas-ice interface
    Chemical fingerprints of star formation
    The late stages of star evolution: dust formation
    Supernovae and shocks: high-energy processing of matter

    The conference will cover studies in many fields such as spectroscopy, analytical (geo) chemistry, reactivity, nanoscience, and quantum chemistry, pertaining to different matter components (gas, plasma, PAHs, ices, dust, solid surfaces, …).

    SOC composition
    Jose Cernicharo (chair). ICMM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Christine Joblin (co-chair). IRAP, Univ. Paul Sabatier/CNRS, Toulouse, France
    Isabel Tanarro. IEM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Jose Angel Martín Gago. ICMM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Karine Demyk. IRAP, Univ. Paul Sabatier/CNRS, Toulouse, France
    Jean-Hugues Fillion. LERMA, UPCM Univ.  Paris 06, & Obs. Paris, France
    Maria Elisabetta Palumbo. INAF-Catania Astrophysical Obs., Italy
    André Canosa. IPR, Univ. Rennes 1/CNRS, France
    Harold Linnartz. Leiden Obs., Univ. of Leiden, The Netherlands
    Liv Hornekaer. iNANO, Aarhus Univ., Danemark
    Peter Sarre. School of Chemistry, Nottingham Univ., UK
    Stephan Schlemmer. Phys. Inst., Univ. Koln, Germany
    Jonathan Tennyson. Univ. College London, UK
    Yves Marrochi. CRPG-CNRS, Nancy, France
    Guillermo Muñoz Caro. CAB, INTA-CSIC, Madrid, Spain

    LOC composition
    Isabel Tanarro (Chair). IEM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Belén Maté. IEM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Víctor J. Herrero. IEM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    José Luis Doménech. IEM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Ángel González-Valdenebro. IEM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Marcelo Castellanos (co-chair). ICMM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Belén Tercero.  ICMM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Juan Ramón Pardo. ICMM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Juan Antonio Corbalán. ICMM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Natalia Ruiz-Zelmanovich. ICMM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain

    AROMA set-up

    AROMA (Astrochemistry Research of Organics with Molecular Analyzer) is a new analytical experimental set-up developed at IRAP/LCAR (Toulouse, France). The main purpose of AROMA is the study and identification, with micro-scale resolution, of the molecular content of cosmic dust analogues, including stardust analogues produced in the Stardust machine and meteoritic samples. AROMA combines laser desorption/ionization (LDI) techniques with a linear ion trap coupled to an orthogonal time of flight mass spectrometer (LQIT-oTOF).

    Outstanding publications on our innovative setup

    Molecular content of nascent soot: Family characterization using two-step laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry (H. Sabbah, M. Commodo, F. Picca, G. de Falco, P. Minutolo, A. D´Anna and C. Joblin). Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 38, Issue 1, 2021, Pages 1241-1248.

    Impact of Metals on (Star)Dust Chemistry: A Laboratory Astrophysics Approach (R. Bérard, K. Makasheva, K. Demyk, A. Simon, D. Nuñez-Reyes, F. Mastrorocco, H. Sabbah and C. Joblin). Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, 2021 March 21. IRAP Press Release: Role des metaux dans la chimie des poussieres detoiles

    Characterization of large carbonaceous molecules in cosmic dust analogues and meteorites (H. Sabbah, M. Carlos and C. Joblin). Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, 2019 Apr; 15(Suppl 350): 103–106.

    Identification of PAH Isomeric Structure in Cosmic Dust Analogues: the AROMA setup (H. Sabbah, A. Bonnamy, D. Papanastasiou, J. Cernicharo, J.-A. Martín-Gago, and C. Joblin). Astrophysical Journal, 2017 Jul 1; 843(1): 34.


    Check our posts on the AROMA set-up