Yebes 40m broad band receivers

IRC+10216: Discovery of molecular speciesHC9N (first time in Space), HC7N, MgC3N and MgC4HFormation in the external layers of the circumstellar envelope
TMC-1: Discovery of molecular species25 molecules, including 1 PAH (indene), 2 hydrocarbon cycles, 3 protonated forms and 2 nitrile anions (15 of them, first time in Space)See dedicated descriptions below
Complementary laboratory experimentsHDCCN, CH3CO+, HC3S+ and HC3O+Laboratory production and full spectroscopical characterization
Table: Major NANOCOSMOS highlights with the “Yebes 40m broad band receivers” (see dedicated descriptions below)

NANOCOSMOS successfully designed and constructed two new millimeter broad band receivers for the Q frequency band (31.5 − 50 GHz) and the W band (72 − 90.5 GHz) for the Yebes 40m radio telescope. One of our main achievements is the instantaneous frequency coverage in order to observe many molecular transitions with single tunings in single-dish mode.

Our Yebes observations have led to the discovery of multiple molecular species. These were made in 2019 (Q2, Q4), and 2020 (Q1) and were complemented with the IRAM 30m radio telescope in Granada (W band).

  • Objects: IRC+10216 as the archetypal AGB carbon rich star and the cold dark Taurus Molecular Cloud -1 or TMC-1.
  • Methodology: observations, laboratory characterization, ab-initio quantum calculations, rotational diagrams, gas-phase chemical models and radiative transfer calculations.

Summary of results with the NANOCOSMOS mm broad band receivers at Yebes 40m radio telescope:

Detection of vibrationally excited HC7N and HC9N in IRC+10216 (J. R. Pardo et al., A&A, 08/2020)

  • HC9N (26 doublets, vib. exc.) – First time detection and characterization in Space
  • HC7N (17 doublets, vib. exc.) – New detection
  • Emission arising from the external layers of the circumstellar envelope
  • Possibe effects on intensity line variations with the stellar phase
  • These vibrationally excited states must be taken into account for precise abundance determinations of long carbon chains

MgCCCN (top) and MgCCCCH (bottom) optimized structures

Discovery of two new magnesium-bearing species in IRC+10216: MgC3N and MgC4H (J. Cernicharo et al., A&A, 10/2019)

  • MgC3N (16 doublets) – New detection
  • MgC4H (6 doublets) – New detection
  • MgCCH (2 doublets) – Confirmation

TMC-1, the starless core sulfur factory: Discovery of NCS, HCCS, H2CCS, H2CCCS, and C4S and detection of C5S (J. Cernicharo et al., A&A, 04/2021)

  • Sulfur-bearing species NCS, HCCS, H2CCS, H2CCCS, and C4S – First time discovery in Space (TMC-1)
  • C5S – First time detection in a cold dark cloud (TMC-1)
  • State-of-the-art gas-phase chemical networks fail to reproduce the observed column densities. Thus, important reactions involving S and S+(neutral-neutral, neutral-ion) and those on dust grain surfaces are missing and much laboratory and theoretical work need be performed in order to understand the chemistry of sulfur
  • The analysis of C4S and C5S shows that S-bearing carbon chains do not follow the smooth decrease in abundance observed in cold dark molecular clouds and circumstellar envelopes for other carbon chains such as cyanopolyynes (HC2n + 1N; a factor 3–5 between members of this molecular species)

Discovery of the propargyl radical (CH2CCH) in TMC-1: One of the most abundant radicals ever found and a key species for cyclization to benzene in cold dark clouds (M. Agúndez et al., A&A, 03/2021)

  • Propargyl radical (CH2CCH) 6 strongest hyperfine components of the 20, 2–10, 1 rotational transition – First time discovery in interstellarr Space (TMC-1)
  • Similar abundance as methyl acetylene. Thus, it is one of the most abundant radicals detected in TMC-1. Moreover, it is probably the most abundant organic radical with a certain chemical complexity ever found in a cold dark cloud
  • The observed high abundance, points out that CH2CCH probably plays a key role in the synthesis of large organic molecules and, in particular, the cyclization towards the first aromatic ring (benzene). This also happens in combustion processes where the CH2CCH radical has a key role in the synthesis of benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

Discovery of allenyl acetylene, H2CCCHCCH, in TMC-1. A study of the isomers of C5H4 (J. Cernicharo et al., A&A, 03/2021)

  • Allenyl Acetylene (H2CCCHCCH) 19 rotational transitions – First time detection in Space (TMC-1)
  • We find that allenyl acetylene and methyl diacetylene are the two most stable C5H4 isomers and both have similar observed abundances in TMC-1
  • State-of-the-art chemical models understimate the observed abundances by an order of magnitude. We need to assess the main formation routes in the chemical models, mainly the reactions of the CCH radical with methyl acetylene (CH3CCH) and allene (H2CCCH2)

Discovery of CH2CHCCH and detection of HCCN, HC4N, CH3CH2CN, and, tentatively, CH3CH2CCH in TMC-1 (J. Cernicharo et al., A&A, 03/2021)

  • Vynil Acetylene (CH2CHCCH) – First time detection in Space (TMC-1)
  • HCCN, HC4N, and CH3CH2CN – First time detection in a cold dark cloud (TMC-1)
  • Ethylene could be a likely precursor of CH2CHCCH and CH2CHCN through reactions with CCH and CN, respectively
  • The reaction between CN and vinyl acetylene is a viable route to the C5H3N isomers recently found in TMC-1 at very low temperatures
  • Our observations show that the cyano methylene radical HCCN and the linear cyano ethynyl-methylene radical HC4N have similar abundances unlike predictions from current chemical models