|#1 – BREAKTHROUGHS in CARBON CHEMISTRY in CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPES (CSEs)|
Breakthroughs in our current understanding on the formation of carbonaceous dust and complex molecules in the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of AGB stars and the interstellar medium (ISM).
Production and analysis of carbon dust seeds in conditions resembling those in the dust formation zones of CSEs contrasting to all previous experiments in the field.
|Innovative experimental methodology|
1 – Production of carbon dust seeds at the Stardust Machine using exclusively gas-phase carbon atoms and molecular hydrogen in a ratio close to that in the atmospheres of AGB stars under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions.
2 – Expansion of the previous study to investigate the interaction of atomic carbon and diatomic carbon with acetylene.
3 – First use of the sputtering gas aggregation source (SGAS) in Laboratory Astrophysics to generate small clusters of nanometre-sized particles by gas-phase aggregation of individual atoms in a weakly ionized environment, thus resembling what happens in the dust formation zones of CSEs.
4 – Full experimental analysis: atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunnel microscopy (STM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), infrared spectroscopy in transmission geometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) at the Stardust Machine. Ex-situ laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) in the AROMA machine that resembles the reactions on the surfaces of dust grains.
1) From experiment 1. Efficient production of carbonaceous nanometre-sized grains, nanometer-sized small amorphous carbon clusters, acetylene (C2H2), along with fragments of ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H6) and larger aliphatic molecules, saturated aliphatic species and marginal detection of aromatic species (benzene, small PAHs like naphthalene) and no fullerenes. We reproduce the abundances of the acetylene and ethylene found in CSEs around AGB stars.
2) From experiment 2. Production of a non-negligible amount of pure and hydrogenated carbon clusters as well as aromatics with aliphatic substitutions, both being a direct consequence of the addition of atomic carbon
Our experiments, that closely resemble the chemistry involved in the CSEs, do not favour the formation of aromatic species (PAHs and fullerenes), which can account for up to 18% of the total carbon species in the interstellar medium. We also show that aromatics with aliphatic substitutions as well as pure and hydrogenated carbon clusters can be produced as a direct consequence of the addition of atomic carbon.
1) SGAS, a technique not previously used in laboratory astrophysics, can be a very valuable tool to gain information on the chemistry operating in CSEs and the interstellar medium.
2) PAHs might not be efficiently formed during gas-phase growth in CSEs.
3) New theoretical plausible scenario: Thermal processing of aliphatic species deposited on dust grains in CSEs could lead to the formation of larger molecules or aromatic species. Such a temperature rise happens in later stages of stellar evolution (protoplanetary nebula PPNe) when the star emits UV radiation that leads to photo-processing of the carbon dust. Indeed, aromatic infrared bands, the signature for PAHs, are not convincingly detected in AGBs, but are observed at these later stages.
4) Unveiling of chemical routes: these results could unveil chemical routes leading to the formation of acetylene-based molecular species in the external layers of AGB stars and in PPNe, and to foster the search for alkyl-substituted aromatics in these environments.
– Prevalence of non-aromatic carbonaceous molecules in the inner regions of circumstellar envelopes (L. Martínez et al., Nature Astronomy, volume 4, pages 97–105, 2020), DOI link. EPMC link.
– A new take on circumstellar carbon chemistry (M. Gatchell, News and Views, Nature Astronomy, volume 4, pages 21 – 22, 2020), share link).
– The Chemistry of Cosmic Dust Analogs from C, C2, and C2H2 in C-rich Circumstellar Envelopes (G. Santoro et al., The Astrophysical Journal, volume 895, number 2, 2020). DOI link. EPMC link.
For the first time, NANOCOSMOS has attempted to reproduce the complex molecular chemistry and stardust formation in circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and in cold molecular clouds under accurate and realistic laboratory conditions. These conditions differ from previous studies and techniques to produce stardust analogs, mostly based on laser ablation and pyrolysis, flames, and other far related conditions from those in the CSEs of AGB stars.
These achievements are based on groundbreaking innovative setups at CSIC and CNRS, e.g. Stardust, AROMA, PIRENEA 2 and cold plasma reactors, that foster the study of complex processes that lead to carbon dust formation including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fullerenes. We have studied the chemistry of atomic silicon and the formation of silicate dust grains. We have also investigated the aromatic content of two different meteorites, Murchison and Almahata Sitta.
In summary, our synergetic results provide significant and surprising breakthroughs in our current understanding of the chemical processes at play in CSEs, the interstellar medium (ISM) and meteoritic samples. These new and open theoretical grounds have also important implications in current chemical models. These NANOCOSMOS breakthroughs are the following:
- Aliphatic nature of carbonaceous cosmic dust analogs in CSEs. Our realistic laboratory conditions do not lead to the efficient formation of aromatic molecules (PAHs and fullerenes) in the gas phase, contrary to all previous studies (Stardust, AROMA)
- First detection of a pure PAH (indene) in the TMC-1 cold dark molecular cloud. This is totally an unexpected discovery and suggests an in-situ bottom-up formation process in these environments from smaller molecules in the gas-phase (Yebes 40m radio telescope + new mm receivers).
- Efficient mechanism for the formation of silane and disilane in the gas phase from Si, H, and H2 in the innermost regions of the CSEs around AGB stars (Stardust).
- Further evidence for the role of metal (iron) seeds to increase not only the formation of metal clusters but also catalyzed hydrocarbon growth in the CSEs of AGB stars (Cold plasma reactors, AROMA, PIRENEA 2 and ESPOIRS)
First firm detection of fullerenes in meteorites (Almahata Sitta) and co-existence of carbon clusters along with PAHs in this meteorite (AROMA).
NANOCOSMOS has performed a systematic work to identify “unknown” gas-phase species in circumstellar envelopes and interstellar molecular clouds. These species are the carriers of the so-called U-lines or unidentified features. Currently, the team has found more than 1,000 U-lines formed in the photosphere surroundings of the AGB carbon star IRC+10216. We are progressing in the identification of these carriers to complete a spectral catalogue and merge this catalogue into the MADEX radiative transfer code.
Definitely, NANOCOSMOS is characterizing different dust formation places in Space through the observations of molecular lines. So far, the team has already discovered 10 new molecular species in the inner regions of the envelope of IRC+10216 and 32 more in the interstellar medium until April 2021. These findings include the detection for the first time in Space of three new pure hydrocarbon cycles: c-C3HCCH (ethynyl cyclopropenylidene), c-C5H6 (cyclopentadiene), and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) c-C9H8 (indene). These hydrocarbons could be one of the keystones to elucidate bottom-up mechanisms in the formation of the first aromatic ring in cold molecular clouds, from which large PAHs may grow.
Our discoveries amount to approximately a 20% of known molecules in Space.
The team has made a joint effort on the following objects. IRC+10216 is the archetypal AGB carbon rich star, given its proximity ~ 130 pc, and unpaired molecular richness with more than 80 molecular species prior to NANOCOSMOS. R Leo is one of the closest AGB oxygen rich stars, at a distance of ~ 80 pc. Multi-wavelength molecular observations of this star show no detection of CO2 despite predictions from chemical models. Y CVn is a carbon rich semi-regular star at ~ 310 pc from the Earth. Its circumnuclear envelope has not been explored in detail mostly due to the lack of sensitive observations. Finally, the Taurus Molecular Cloud -1 or TMC-1, is a cold dark molecular cloud. It presents an interesting carbon-rich chemistry that leads to the formation of long neutral carbon-chain radicals and their anions, as well as cyanopolyynes, and protonated species of abundant large carbon chains.
This menu splits our stunning discoveries into the following entries:
- Yebes 40 m radio telescope new broad band receivers and complementary observations with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope. Multiple discoveries of molecular species in IRC+10216 and TMC-1. Further contraints on chemical models.
- High-resolution observations of the inner dust formation zone in IRC+10216 with the ALMA radio interferometer. Our analysis is ongoing.
- ALMA and IRAM 30m observations of the circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars, cold dark clouds and prestellar cores. These observations include two IRAM molecular surveys of 40 AGB stars. Several discoveries of molecular species in IRC+10216 and in other objects.
- High spectral resolution Infrared observations of R Leo with the airborne Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), IRC+10216 with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Y CVn with both observatories.
The team is currently submitting new exciting results from the NANOCOSMOS legacy molecular survey of evolved stars with the Yebes 40m radio telescope. Also, we are interpreting new challenging results from ALMA high resolution observations of IRC+10216 that will boost our previous observations of this source. The best for NANOCOSMOS is yet to come!
IRC+10216: new molecules inventory
|3-atoms||4-atoms||5-atoms||6-atoms||7 or more|
Interstellar Medium: new molecules inventory
|2-atoms||3-atoms||4-atoms||5-atoms||6-atoms||7 or more|
NANOCOSMOS has successfully achieved significative breakthroughs to address the fundamental problem of cosmic dust formation. We have designed and implemented innovative experimental set-ups and analytical tools well beyond the state-of-the-art. Next we describe the design, construction, implementation and commissioning of these innovations in the dedicated links:
- Stardust machine.
- AROMA (Astrochemistry Research of Organics with Molecular Analyzer).
- PIRENEA 2 (improvement of the “Ion Trap for the Research and Study of New Astrochemical Species”).
- GACELA (Gas Cell for Laboratory Astrophysics).
- Nanocosmos millimeter broad band receivers for GACELA and the 40m Yebes radio telescope.
NANOCOSMOS is providing new exciting experimental results in different research fields and challenging theoretical grounds. This menu is devoted to the description and analysis of Outstanding Results and potential new challenges.
The Nanocosmos team published in October 21, 2019, at Nature Astronomy (available free at Europe PubMed Central), the results of a set of laboratory experiments showing that gas-phase chemistry, under conditions similar to those of a red giant star environment, can produce very efficiently small amorphous carbon grains and carbon chains similar to those found in oil.
Stardust, an ultra-high vacuum machine built in the ERC Nanocosmos project (a Synergy project funded by the European Research Council), was specifically conceived to simulate, with a high level of control, the complex conditions of stardust formation and processing in the environment of evolved stars. In addition, the AROMA setup was built to analyse the molecular content of the samples synthesized by Stardust.
In the words of José Ángel Martín-Gago (Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Spain), responsible for the Stardust instrument, “Mimicking the conditions of the envelope of an evolved star, laboratory experiments allow scientists to follow, step by step, the formation process of dust grains, from atoms to simple molecules and their growth to more complex clusters of molecules.”
For José Cernicharo (Institute of Fundamental Physics, IFF-CSIC, Spain), lead co-investigator of the project together with Martín-Gago and Christine Joblin (Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, IRAP-CNRS, France), “That process is important because those grains of dust, which emerge from the final stages of the evolution of medium-sized stars like our Sun will provide the fundamental pieces needed for the birth of the planets and the main ingredients for the onset of life once injected into the interstellar medium.”
This is why it is essential to develop experiments combining laboratory astrophysics, surface science and astronomical observations to unveil the chemical routes that operate in the inner layers of the envelope of evolved stars.
The results obtained show the formation of amorphous carbon nanograins and aliphatic carbon clusters with traces of aromatic species and no fullerenes. This shows that the latter species cannot form effectively by gas-phase condensation at these temperatures in the zone of the evolved star where the dust is formed, a region that extends up to a few stellar radii.
Carbon dust analogues were produced in Stardust and analysed with several characterization techniques including Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and mass spectrometry with the AROMA setup. To produce them only gas carbon atoms and molecular hydrogen were used in a ratio close to that in the atmospheres of AGB stars.
The results showed two types of products: amorphous carbonaceous nanograins – the most abundant, considered to be the main component of carbonaceous star dust – and aliphatic carbon groups. But almost no aromatic molecules were found in the analysis.
According to Joblin, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in massive star-forming regions and in carbon-rich protoplanetary and planetary nebulae. Large carbonaceous molecules like buckminsterfullerene C60 have also been detected in some of these environments. But it seems that they need different conditions to be formed”.
One possible pathway could be through thermal processing of aliphatic material on the surface of dust, which could take place as a result of the significant rise in the temperature of nanograins that occurs in highly UV-irradiated environments. Those results give us new insights into the chemistry of carbonaceous stardust seed formation and foster new observations in order to constrain the physical and chemical conditions in the inner shells of the envelops of evolved stars.
About the ERC
The European Research Council, set up by the European Union in 2007, is the premier European funding organisation for excellent frontier research. Every year it selects and funds the very best, creative researchers of any nationality and age to run projects based in Europe. The ERC has three grant schemes for individual principal investigators – Starting Grants, Consolidator Grants, and Advanced Grants – and Synergy Grants for small groups of excellent researchers.
To date, the ERC has funded more than 9,000 top researchers at various stages of their careers, and over 50,000 postdoctoral fellows, PhD students and other staff working in their research teams. The ERC strives to attract top researchers from anywhere in the world to come to Europe.
The ERC is led by an independent governing body, the Scientific Council. The ERC current President is Professor Jean-Pierre Bourguignon. The ERC has an annual budget of €2 billion for the year 2019. The overall ERC budget from 2014 to 2020 is more than €13 billion, as part of the Horizon 2020 programme, for which European Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science Carlos Moedas is currently responsible.